Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/7561
Iodine status of Icelandic pregnant women. Adherence to Food Based Dietary Guidelines
Joðhagur barnshafandi kvenna á Íslandi. Fylgni við fæðutengdar ráðleggingar
Objectives: One of the most critical periods of iodine deficiency is pregnancy.The study had two aims: 1) To assess iodine status of pregnant women in a population changing from a high to lower consumption of milk and fish, which are important sources of dietary iodine. 2) To assess food choice among pregnant women and compliance to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines (FBDG).
Subjects/Methods: Subjects were randomly selected pregnant women (19-43 years-old, n=162). A validated Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) was used to evaluate food consumption. Intake was compared to the FBDG. Urine samples were collected for measuring urinary iodine (UI) and creatinine (Cr) and blood samples for measuring serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
Results: Supplements were estimated to provide 33% of the total dietary iodine, milk and dairy products provided 31% and fish 18%. The median UI concentration was 180µg/l and the median UI/Cr ratio 173µg I/g Cr. Intake of milk was positively associated to iodine excretion (r=0.177, p=0.025) and µg iodine/g creatinine ratio (r=0.335, p<0.001). About 60% met recommendations of ≥200g of fruits per day but only 4% met recommendations for ≥200g of vegetable per day. About 40% of the pregnant women consumed fish twice a week or more and around 70% met recommendations of two portions of milk and dairy products per day. Around 40% met recommendatins for vitamin D of 10 µg/day.
Conclusion: Iodine status was within the optimal range (150-249 µg/day) defined by the World Health Organization. Recommendations for milk and dairy products were most commonly met . Consumption of vegetables, fish and vitamin D were rather low.