Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/11173
United Nations Peacekeeping. Evolution, principles and applicable norms
Peacekeeping was invented by the United Nations soon after the organization was established. Throughout the Cold War only two means of actions were accepted by the United Nations; peacekeeping and peace-enforcement. Even though the world has changed immensely since then and United Nations peacekeeping operations have faced increasing difficulties, no other accepted mode of action has emerged. Peacekeeping operations were invented and developed by the Unite Nations in response to the Cold War there was a need to address conflicts that arose after the Unite Nations Charter entered into force, and for which the mechanisms provided for in Chapters VI and VII of the Charter could not be used. Provisions of Chapter VI, concerning the pacific settlement of disputes, were inadequate and members of the Security Council could not agree upon Chapter VII actions, concerning enforcement measures, due to ideological differences that prevailed during the Cold War. As a result peacekeeping emerged as a mode of international intervention not provided for in the Charter.
Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld established the first peacekeeping force in 1956, the United Nations Emergency Force. In his report of this mission, he outlined the broad philosophy of peacekeeping that peace operations came to be subjected to. The Secretary-General pronounced the principles of traditional peacekeeping as (1) Consent, (2) Neutrality or Impartiality and (3) Minimum Use of Force. Hammerskjöld saw peacekeeping as a role for the Unite Nations which was quasi-military but avoided the use of force.
The United Nations have developed an assortment of instruments for controlling and resolving conflicts between and within States. Most important of them are preventive diplomacy and peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace-building, disarmament, sanctions and peace-enforcement. The first three can only be deployed with the consent of the conflicting parties. Sanctions and enforcement on the other hand are coercive measures which by definition do not require the consent of parties concerned. Member States have encouraged the Secretary-General to play an active role in this field even if they are reluctant when they themselves are party to the conflict. It is clear that the United Nations cannot impose its preventive and peacemaking service on Member States that do not want them. Since the end of the Cold War, the role of the UN has become increasingly important in the area of international peace and security. However, the use of force by peacekeepers and in support of peacekeeping mission has raised questions on the future role of UN peacekeeping. Despite increasing difficulties faced by UN peacekeepers, a new mode of action beyond peacekeeping and peace-enforcement has not emerged. This has proven problematic, as peacekeeping forces are at times not the answer to conflict, there have been cases where there is no peace to be kept.