Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/17420
Hversu lýðræðisleg á ég að vera? : þróunarstarf um lýðræði og mannréttindi í leikskólanum Árbæ
Í greininni er fjallað um þróunarstarfog starfendarannsókn
við leikskólann Árbæ. Allt starfsfólk skólans tók þátt í verkefninu í samstarfi við utanaðkomandi verkefnastjóra. Tilgangur með þróunarverkefninu var að efla lýðræðisleg vinnubrögð í leikskólanum og stuðla að fræðslu og umræðum meðal starfsfólks um lýðræðislegan skólabrag og hvað í honum fælist,
lýðræðisleg viðhorf og starfshætti. Einnig var með verkefninu
ætlunin að leita eftir hugmyndum frá starfsmannahópnum um
starfshætti sem styrkt gætu lýðræðislegan skólabrag í leikskólanum, reyna þær hugmyndir einn vetur í daglegu starfi og meta verkefnið að því loknu. Loks átti að semja námskrá í lýðræði fyrir leikskólann og láta reyna á hana í starfi. Í verkefninu var fylgst með þróun hugmynda og starfsaðferða
í hópi kennara með reglulegri fræðslu, samráðsfundum og dagbókarskrifum stjórnenda. Niðurstöður eftir einn vetur
benda til þess að starfendarannsókninog þróunarstarfið
hafi haft áhrif á starfsaðferðir og viðhorf starfsfólks við skólann. Starfsmenn urðu sér betur vitandi um lýðræðislega starfshætti og réttindi barna og greindu á markvissari hátt
en áður hvernig ýta má undir og styðja samvinnu og virka hlustun í daglegu starfi. Lögð var áhersla á opið og hlýlegt andrúmsloft, aukin tækifæri í smærri hópum og samstarf
á milli deilda. Markmið námskrár í lýðræði voru felld í fjóra flokka með hliðsjón af hópum sem standa að skólastarfinu og fram
komu hugmyndir um frekara starf.
The article describes a collaborative action research project conducted in one preschool. The participants were the staff who collaborated with a project manager. The aim of the study was to educate and discuss democratic view’s, practices and children’s rights in the preschool. The aims were also to: ellicit ideas from the staff on activities that promote a democratic atmosphere in the school; to try these ideas for one school year; to evaluate them and to write a curriculum on democracy and children’s rights for Árbær preschool. Data were gathered throughout the study period from various sources such as from teachers’ meetings and diaries. The project started with a conference day in the beginning of August, 2012, which was used to teach about democracy in preschools. On that day, the staff decided to limit the project to: updating a contract on communications for children, parents and staff; exchanging ideas on integrating democratic activities; teaching democratic deliberation and cooperation; ellicting ideas on formal participation from children, parents and preschool staff; creating a curriculum on democracy and human rights. The contract on communications that the staff updated in a democratic light showed that care and mindfulness should play a large part in the atmosphere at Árbær and that the staff should develop positive communication with parents and children. The preschool activities in Árbær should consist of joy and happi-ness so that children and staff look forward to attending school. Moreover posi-tivity and politeness should prevail, good ideas should be welcomed and people should choose to be in a good mood at work. Respect and helpfulness were considered important, as was the fact that staff, parents and children participate in school activities. The daily agenda in the preschool played a major role in promoting or reducing democracy. By working with the children in smaller groups and increasing staff presence in their play, democracy in the children’s interactions could be promot-ed, including the children’s choice of play materials, play areas and partners. The staff saw opportunities in working together between departments in planning activities in the art room and the sports hall. They also thought that it would be preferable to update the “choice times” and make them more democratic. Each department decided on developing a democratic choice system that suited the children’s age. There was interest in having the children, expecialy the older ones, make school rules. The staff decided that they should start activities next winter by making such rules with the children and having the children come up with mutual goals and wishes for visits (to the library for example), walks and so on. In creating a curriculum on democracy and human rights the staff decided on the following categories: The preschool and society. Democracy is learned in the society and in the preschool as well. The children. The will, intuition, experience, skills and voices of children are respected and have impact on the preschool activities. The staff. The preschool head teacher is the professional leader and leads democratic cooperation between different groups in the school. The staff should have the opportunity to participate actively in the schools activities and influence them. The parents. Trust prevails between parents and staff so that interactive communication and a sharing of views can take place and joint decisions about individual children can be taken. The findings indicate that participation in the action research influenced the staffs’ ideas and practices. They became more aware of democratic practices and children´s rights and how to support cooperation and active listening in their daily activities.