Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/25582
Factors affecting attitudes and behavioral intentions towards in-app mobile advertisements: A cross-cultural comparison between India and the United Kingdom
The number of people using smartphones has increased dramatically in the last couple of years, which in turn has led to rapid growth in mobile advertising spending. But despite the popularity of smartphones, limited research is available on the factors affecting consumer attitudes towards in-app advertisements. Using and theory of reasoned action as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this research is therefore to examine the attitudes of smartphone users towards in-app mobile advertising and investigate the variables that influence their attitudes. The relationship between attitude and consumers’ behavioral intention is also studied and the variance between the United Kingdom and India. These two countries were chosen for this study as they receive different scores on Hofstade’s cultural dimensions’ theory and Hall’s cultural factors theory. According to these theories, United Kingdom shares similar values and attributes with other Western countries while India is more similar to Asian countries. To collect data from the two countries, a quantitative study was conducted using an online survey. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the data from 251 participants recruited through a company called CrowdFlower. The results suggest that smartphone users generally hold rather negative attitudes toward in-app advertisements and that there is a strong positive relationship between attitudes and the intention to pay attention, read and click on the advertisements. Perceived entertainment of in-app mobile advertisements has a strong positive effect on attitudes toward the advertisements while credibility and informativeness had a moderate effect. Irritation, on the other hand, had a negative impact on attitudes while personalization did not have a significant effect on attitudes. The results also reveal that there is a significant cultural difference as Indian consumers held more favorable attitudes toward in-app advertisements and believed that they were more likely to use them. Perceived entertainment of the advertisements had also more impact on attitudes among the Indian smartphone users while credibility had more impact on users in the United Kingdom. These findings help advertisers to understand which factors they should focus on when implementing both local and international advertising strategies.