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Titill: 
  • Viðhorf kennara til ákvarðanatöku nemenda í hönnun og smíði
Útgáfa: 
  • September 2013
Útdráttur: 
  • Greinin fjallar um rannsókn á viðhorfum grunnskólakennara til ákvarðanatöku nemenda í námsgreininni hönnun og smíði. Í rannsókninni var einkum horft til nemenda á aldrinum 12 til 14 ára og könnuð tækifæri sem kennarar í greininni veita þeim til að taka eigin ákvarðanir. Fjallað var um viðhorf kennaranna til kennarahlutverksins og hvaða möguleika þeir töldu sig hafa til þess að ýta undir og þroska færni nemenda að þessu leyti. Rannsóknin fór fram í tveimur áföngum skólaárið 2010–2011. Í fyrri áfanga var gaumgæfð aðalnámskrá grunnskóla í hönnun og smíði en þar er ásamt öðru fjallað um áfangamarkmið sem lúta að ákvarðanatöku. Í síðari áfanga voru tekin hálfopin viðtöl við tíu grunnskólakennara í hönnun og smíði. Leitað var eftir viðhorfum kennaranna til ákvarðanatöku af hálfu nemenda og athugað hvort kennarar veittu nemendum tækifæri til sjálfstæðra ákvarðana. Einnig var rannsakaður skilningur kennara á mikilvægi þess að veita nemendum svigrúm til ákvarð-ana og því hlutverki menntunar að stuðla að ákvörðunum nemenda um eigin at-hafnir. Könnuð var sýn kennara á aðalnámskrá og innt eftir hugmyndum þeirra um áhrif hennar á skólastarf. Af niðurstöðum rannsóknarinnar má álykta að aðalnám-skrá grunnskóla í hönnun og smíði frá 2007 bjóði upp á mörg tækifæri til þess að taka ákvarðanir um hönnun og smíði verkefna. Kennarar telja hins vegar að námskráin geri kröfur sem erfitt sé að mæta í skólastarfi. Nemendur leita sjaldan að upplýsingum og setja sér ekki viðeigandi viðmið heldur treysta á kennarann og fyrri reynslu. Kennararnir telja nauðsynlegt að setja ákveðnari kröfur í námskrá en líta líka svo á að leiðbeina þurfi kennurum um þessi efni. Gera þarf frekari rannsóknir á áhrifum kennara og skoða nánar stöðu nemenda til að dýpka skilning á því hvernig aðalnámskrá grunnskóla og hagkvæmnissjónarmið móta hugmyndir kennara um ákvarðanatöku nemenda við hönnun og smíðar.

  • Útdráttur er á ensku

    Decision-making skills are an important part of our everyday activities and gener-al education should give opportunities for children to develop such skills. Design and Craft education aims at giving students knowledge and skills necessary in their daily lives. It offers significant opportunities to improve students’ aware-ness and understanding to make them able to make knowledgeable choices that can enrich their existence and contribute to the growth of their society. Such awareness and understanding equips pupils with the resources to think more critically and to make informed decisions, whether as students, designers, mak-ers or citizens. This article reports an investigation into the attitudes of icelandic teachers regarding students’ decision-making in Design and Craft education. The enquiry sought to establish teachers’ understanding of their profession and their roles with regard to students’ decision-making, or to explore beliefs and attitudes of Design and Craft teachers regarding their interaction with students while they make design decisions. The investigation looked at the following questions: 1. What decision-making opportunities are included in the Design and Craft curriculum in Iceland? 2. What are teachers’ attitudes regarding decision-making in Design and Craft education? 3. What decision-making opportunities do teachers give to children when working in Design and Craft? The research was conducted using a phenomenographic approach focusing on teachers’ roles and their understanding of the significance of student auto-nomy at age 12–14, in particular their understanding of the relationship between students’ decision-making, the Icelandic National Curriculum for Design and Craft and education in Design and Craft. The enquiry was carried out in two phases during the school year 2010–2011. The first phase included a review of the national curriculum for Design and Craft. The second phase included 10 inter-views with practicing Design and Craft teachers to explore attitudes and strate-gies underpinning their practice. A semi-structured interview schedule was constructed based on a literature review to explore issues like teachers’ imple-mentation of the national curriculum, the effect of books and other sources of in-formation on childrens’ decision-making and the ability of children to set criteria for evaluation and to transfer skills to other areas of life. The results of the study reveal that the curriculum include many opportunities for decision-making in Design and Craft classes. Teachers, however, believe that it is not feasible to apply some decision-making requirements of the curriculum. Another potentially significant outcome for curriculum developers is that children very rarely search for information, or set appropriate criteria to support design decisions. Students rely on teachers and their own past experience in order to reach decisions. Explicit requirements to develop decision-making capabilities could well improve the curriculum. Associated formal training in decision-making techniques might also improve the quality of children’s decisions during design activities. Another important issue is that there is a positive motivational effect when children take design decisions, and there is an improvement in their participation in their de-sign project when the project is meaningful to them. Despite the fact that international research indicates that decision-making is an essential function in adults’ lives, there has been little research undertaken to examine decision-making in Design and Craft education in Icelandic schools. While the results of the study indicate the importance of teachers’ involvement supporting their students’ enhancement of decision-making skills, a number of additional issues need to be examined to enable guidance for teachers’ formal training. Further research will help to explain how general education and Design and Craft education in particular may provide better opportunities for students to develop design and decision-making skills.

Birtist í: 
  • Netla
ISSN: 
  • 1670-0244
Tengd vefslóð: 
  • http://netla.hi.is/greinar/2013/ryn/002.pdf
Samþykkt: 
  • 4.11.2013
URI: 
  • http://hdl.handle.net/1946/16836


Skrár
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