Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/17492
Í þessari grein er sagt frá niðurstöðum eigindlegrar rannsóknar sem hafði það að markmiði að kanna skólareynslu nemenda með langvarandi hegðunarerfiðleika og athuga hvort breytingar yrðu við framkvæmd stuðningsáætlunar sem byggði á virknimati. Virknimat er aðferð til að meta áhrifaþætti á erfiða hegðun og stuðningsáætlun felur í sér margþætta íhlutun til að bæta hegðun, námsástundun og líðan. Þátttakendur voru sex drengir á aldrinum 7–16 ára sem allir höfðu sýnt hegðunarerfiðleika í 5 til 9 ár. Fjórir þeirra höfðu verið greindir með ADHD, tveir með mót-þróaþrjóskuröskun, einn með ódæmigerða einhverfu, tveir með mikla námsörðugleika auk fleiri erfiðleika. Opin viðtölin voru tekin upp, skráð og greind í þemu með aðstoð tölvuforritsins NVivo 2.0. Nemendurnir lýstu allir neikvæðri reynslu af skólagöngu áður en virknimat og stuðningsáætlanir komu til sögunnar. Þeir óskuðu eftir að fá hvetjandi leiðsögn og að komið væri fram við þá af virðingu. Öllum nema einum þóttu vinnubrögð við virknimat og stuðningsáætlanir uppfylla þær óskir og hafa góð áhrif á hegðun sína, líðan og námsástundun. Eldri nemendurnir óskuðu þess að hafa kynnst þessum vinnubrögðum fyrr og jafnframt að kennarar lærðu þau í ríkari mæli. Niðurstöðurnar benda til að virknimat og stuðningsáætlun gætu nýst við það lögbundna hlutverk kennara að leita orsaka og lausna á hegðunarerfiðleikum í samvinnu við nemendur, foreldra, skólastjórnendur og ráðgjafa.
Students’ behavior problems not only present some of the biggest challenges to teachers but also adversely affect students’ academic and social outcomes (Bradley, Renee & Bartolotta, 2008). Many students with behavior problems feel that their needs are not being met at school and resent the use of punishment which they rate as “unhelpful” (Costenbader & Markson, 1998). Functional be-havioral assessment and behavior support plans have been shown to effectively decrease behavior problems (Anna-Lind Pétursdóttir, 2011; Lane, Umbreit og Beebe-Frankenberger, 1999; O’Neill og Stephenson, 2009). However, research is lacking on how students perceive these strategies. Exploring students’ perception is important, especially since negative school experiences can increase the risk of drop out (Vitaro, Larocque, Janosz og Tremblay, 2001). In this study, six students were interviewed to determine their perceptions of functional behavioral assessment and behavior support plans that had been implemented to decrease their persistent behavior problems in school. The four younger participants were 7 to 8 year old boys, three of whom had diagnoses of ADHD, two of oppositional defiant disorder, one of autism spectrum disorder, and two of learning disabilities in addition to other difficulties. The two older participants were 15 to 16 year old boys, one diagnosed with ADHD. All participants had been exhibiting behavior problems for 5 to 9 years. Semistructured interviews were conducted with younger participants before and after implementation of the function-based behavior support plan. Older participants were interviewed three years after the intervention and therefore could report on longterm effects. Interviews were recorded and analyzed into themes with Nvivo 2.0 software. All participants described negative school experiences prior to implementation of the function-based behavior support plan. A common theme was that they felt as if their difficulties and special needs had not been properly addressed in their respective schools. The participants all perceived loud scolding and suspensions as negative and useless and wished to be treated with more respect and understanding. Functional behavioral assessments were conducted through interviews with students, their parents and teachers, and direct observations to determine the environmental factors influencing participants’ problem behavior. Participants expressed that they liked being asked about their points of view and to influence the behavior support plan. Comprehensive behavior support plans were consequently constructed with strategies targeting the setting events, antecedents, and consequences determined to influence participants’ problem behavior. The plans were implemented by their teachers under the supervision of the authors. Participants all reported that procedures of the functional behavioral assessment and behavior support plan better met their needs. Through the function-based behavior support plans, participants’ persistent behavior problems substantially decreased, as described in previous research articles (Anna-Lind Pétursdóttir, 2010; Guðrún Björg Ragnarsdóttir & Anna-Lind Pétursdóttir, 2012, in press). All participants except one expressed positive effects of the intervention on their behavior, academic engagement and well-being at school. The older students wished that these procedures had been implemented sooner in their schooling and recommended that teachers should get more training in this area. Findings are in accordance with previous research describing negative school experiences of students with behavior problems, but add to the literature a detailed de-scription of student perceptions of functional behavioral assessment and behavior support plans.
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