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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/20624

Title: 
  • is Engar hendur, ekkert súkkulaði : kyngervi, hörundslitur, fötlun og stétt í kvikmyndinni Intouchables
Published: 
  • December 2014
Abstract: 
  • is

    Samhengi menningar og fötlunar er áhugavert viðfangsefni og með því að skoða
    mismunandi menningarafurðir er hægt að fá vísbendingar um gildi og viðmið
    samfélaga. Leiknar kvikmyndir eru dæmi um slíka menningarafurð, geta gefið vísbendingar
    um tíðarandann og haft áhrif á viðhorf almennings. Í greininni verður
    rýnt í frönsku kvikmyndina Intouchables sem var frumsýnd árið 2011, sló mörg að-
    sóknarmet og var tilnefnd til fjölda verðlauna. Myndin fjallar um fatlaðan auðkýfing
    og aðstoðarmann hans, sem er „ómenntaður“ innflytjandi frá Senegal og hefur
    enga faglega þekkingu á því hvernig aðstoða eigi fatlað fólk í daglegu lífi. Birtingarmyndir
    fatlaðs fólks í kvikmyndum byggja oft og tíðum á staðalímyndum um hið
    „afbrigðilega“ en slíkar staðalímyndir má einnig finna um aðra minnihlutahópa. Í
    kvikmyndinni er aðalsögupersónunum stillt upp sem andstæðupörum — fátækur
    og ríkur, ófatlaður og fatlaður, svartur og hvítur — og með því að beita kenningum
    um samtvinnun er í þessari grein leitast við að lýsa því hvernig þessar hugsmíðar
    tvinnast saman og gefa vísbendingar um ríkjandi kynjamisrétti, kynþáttafordóma,
    hæfishroka og stéttahroka. Þó að kvikmyndin kunni á yfirborðinu að virðast einföld
    saga tveggja ólíkra manna, má greina í henna flókin samfélagsmynstur mismununar
    og forréttinda þegar betur er að gáð. Í greininni eru færð rök fyrir því hvernig
    myndin hvort tveggja ýtir undir og grefur undan ríkjandi hugmyndafræði, allt eftir
    því frá hvaða sjónarhorni á hana er horft.

  • Background: The interplay of culture and disability is an interesting topic to explore,
    and by focusing on different cultural productions it is possible to understand
    societies’ values at different times in history. Films can be categorized as
    cultural productions that express values in time and space, and can potentially
    influence public opinion. This article is about the French film Intouchables,
    which premiered in 2011 and was well received and nominated for several
    awards. The film is based on a true story about a Parisian aristocrat, Philippe,
    who is a quadriplegic millionaire, and Driss, his personal assistant, an immigrant
    from Senegal who has no formal training or knowledge of how disabled
    people should be assisted and supported in their daily lives. The film was
    directed by Oliver Nakache and Éric Toledano, and although the film was very popular in Europe, including Iceland, it received mixed reviews from film critics.
    It was critiqued for underestimating the seriousness of living with quadriplegia
    and for being borderline racist (O‘Sullivan, 2012). However, disability is a
    common theme in film and TV, and in fact the disability studies scholar Tobin
    Sieber (2008) claims that there is a strong link between playing the role of a
    disabled character and receiving Oscar nominations. Common representations
    of disability in film and media are characters who are violent, dependent on
    others or incompetent, and it is possible that audiences transfer these ideas to
    disabled people living in their community (Saffran, 2000). Films and media
    commonly use disability stereotypes portraying disabled people in negative
    ways, and similar practices can be found in relation to other minority groups.
    Tolenado and Nakache (2012) announced publicly that their main goal was to
    make a feel-good, buddy film, but they also wanted to stay true to the original
    story. Since the film became so widely popular in Iceland, and since disability
    in film has received little attention in the Icelandic research literature, this film
    is an interesting topic to explore in the Icelandic context.
    Purpose and methods: The aim of this article is to explore the representation
    of gender, disability, race and class in the French film Intouchables. There is
    no one method to study or analyze film, and beside the field of film studies
    the topic of film or cinema has been popular in many different academic fields,
    such as folkloristics, disability studies, and philosophy. In this article we categorize
    film as a cultural production rather than analysing the genre or basing
    our analysis on auteur theory. The film was analyzed by employing a historical
    analysis of discourse (Foucault, 1972; Jóhannesson, 2006), which has the
    potential to identify the interplay of contradicting ideas at a certain time and
    place (Jóhannesson, 2006). By employing historical analysis of discourse we
    examined how ideas of gender, race, class and disability are represented. We
    also used the feminist theory of intersectionality, which is an interdisciplinary
    method to analyse the multiple dimensions of social relations in the oppression
    of subordinate groups in society.
    Results: On the surface, Intouchables is a simple buddy film, but by employing
    historical analysis of discourse and theories of intersectionality it is possible to
    identify social issues of inequality and privilege. The findings suggest that the
    film portrays the intersection of class, race, and disability. Classism was the
    center of many of the film’s carnevalesque jokes, although it was often difficult
    to determine if lower class or upper class should be interpreted as “better”,
    “worse”, “upper” or “lower”. Class and disability, for example, were found to
    intersect in the theme of disabled or unemployed pensioners, considered lazy
    and possibly cheating the welfare system. Such negative ideas about disabled
    and unemployed people as burdens on society have even been linked to hate
    discourse and hate crime.
    Ableism is a form of social prejudice against disabled people, where it is implied
    that it is “normal” and always better to be non-disabled. The ableism in
    the film is interconnected with sexism and racism. Ableist, sexist and racist
    perspectives are iterated with stereotypes, such as the dependent and asexual
    disabled man and the black, hyper-sexual non-disabled man. The film is filled
    with contradictions, including how the men can simultaneously experience inequality
    and privilege based on what categories of oppression we focus on.
    We do not intend to evaluate the quality of the film but instead focus on how it
    simultaneously reinforces and weakens social hegemony depending on the
    analytical lenses applied by the audience.

Citation: 
  • Netla
ISSN: 
  • 1670-0244
Accepted: 
  • Feb 20, 2015
URI: 
  • http://hdl.handle.net/1946/20624


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