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Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/20626

Titill: 
  • Að uppfæra Ísland : sýn stjórnenda íslenskra framhaldsskóla á nýsköpunar- og frumkvöðlamennt og framkvæmd námssviðsins í námskrárfræðilegu ljósi
Útgáfa: 
  • Desember 2014
Útdráttur: 
  • Nýsköpunar- og frumkvöðlamennt (NFM) hefur verið kynnt sem menntun er þjónar
    efnahagslegum þörfum samfélagsins en á seinni árum einnig sem menntun sem
    getur eflt einstaklinginn sem skapandi og gagnrýninn þjóðfélagsþegn. Margvísleg
    tækifæri má sjá í núgildandi námskrá framhaldsskóla fyrir nýsköpunar- og frumkvöðlamennt
    þó svo að námssviðið hafi ekki verið kynnt sem sérstök námsgrein
    eða skilgreindir áfangar þar. Haustið 2012 hófu Nýsköpunarmiðstöð Íslands og
    tvö ráðuneyti ásamt fleiri samstarfsaðilum sameiginlegt átak um að efla þátt þessa
    námssviðs í framhaldsskólum. Samstarfið hófst með könnun á núverandi stöðu
    námssviðsins. Vefkönnun var lögð fyrir stjórnendur framhaldsskóla, þar sem með-
    al annars var spurt um stöðu nýsköpunar- og frumkvöðlamenntar í hverjum skóla
    fyrir sig, afstöðu stjórnenda til námssviðsins og þáttar þess í kennaramenntun og
    hvernig þeir myndu skilgreina það. Svanborg R. Jónsdóttir annaðist greiningu
    gagna í samstarfi við Nýsköpunarmiðstöð Íslands. Í framhaldi af því fengu höfundar
    þessarar greinar og Rannsóknarstofa um námskrá, námsmat og námsskipulag
    (NNN) leyfi til að greina niðurstöður opinna spurninga nánar með hliðsjón af flokkunarkerfi
    Michael Schiro (2008) í námskrárfræðum. Niðurstöðurnar gefa til kynna
    að stjórnendur sjái margvísleg tækifæri felast í nýsköpunar- og frumkvöðlamennt
    og skilgreina flestir námssviðið í anda nemendamiðaðrar námskrár og samfélagsmiðaðrar
    námskrár. Nánar voru rannsökuð tvö tilvik um nýsköpunar- og frumkvöðlamennt
    í skólastarfi og leiddu þau í ljós sterka tengingu við samfélag og jafnframt
    áherslu á skapandi og sjálfstæða hugsun.

  • Innovation and entrepreneurial education (IEE) has been introduced as an
    educational endeavour that serves the economic progress of modern societies. But in recent years it has also been regarded as an area of learning that promotes
    individual learners to become creative, active and critical citizens. Thus
    IEE can be seen as a premise for personal and cultural growth, economical and
    technological development and scientific discovery.
    IEE has become a curricular area focusing on creativity and knowledge to solve
    problems that learners themselves identify and analyse, at the same time
    enhancing their initiative. It aims at developing critical and creative thinking in
    design, science, technology, marketing and enterprise. The pedagogy of IEE
    has been analysed as emancipatory pedagogy, where the learner has ample
    agency and the teacher gradually and systematically gives control to students
    in their projects (Svanborg R. Jónsdóttir, 2011).
    IEE has developed in Iceland as a concept where innovation is more commonly
    taught at the compulsory level and entrepreneur-ship more often at the uppersecondary
    level. In other countries, the terms entrepreneurship education,
    entrepreneurial education or enterprise education are more commonly used for
    this kind of education (Svanborg R. Jónsdóttir, Meyvant Þórólfsson, Gunnar E.
    Finnbogason & Jóhanna Karlsdóttir, 2013).
    The findings of this research imply that different implementations of IEE can be
    found in upper secondary schools in Iceland, despite that the National Icelandic
    Curriculum for Upper Secondary Schools (Mennta- og menningarmálaráðuneytið,
    2011) has not presented IEE as a specific discipline or area in secondary
    education.
    In 2012 The Innovation Center Iceland (i. Nýsköpunarmiðstöð Íslands), The
    Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, The Ministry of Industries and
    Innovation, The School of Education of The University of Iceland, The Union
    of Teachers in IEE (i. Félag kennara í nýsköpunar- og frumkvöðlamennt), and
    The Icelandic Secondary Schools Association (i. Félag íslenskra framhaldsskóla),
    signed an agreement on enhancing IEE education in secondary schools.
    The first undertaking was to explore the present situation of IEE education in
    secondary schools.
    An Internet survey was submitted to administrators in all Icelandic upper secondary
    schools with questions about the present status of IEE, the administrators’
    views on IEE, how they defined it, and their ideas about its role in teacher
    education. The survey contained two open questions where the administrators
    could analyse and explain their views on IEE and the opportunities they saw in
    this curriculum area. The answer rate was 97% for the questionnaire and 90%
    for the open questions. The authors of this article and The Research Unit on
    Curriculum and Assessment (i. NNN Rannsóknastofa) had permission to use
    and analyse the answers to open questions enclosed in the questionnaire.
    The questions were analysed with respect to a predefined curriculum ideology
    framework, based on Michael Schiro’s (2008) classification of curricula into
    four curriculum ideologies, learner-centred, scholar academic, social efficiency,
    and social reconstructionist.
    The results indicate that administrators of secondary schools see various
    interesting opportunities in IEE. Most of them explain the opportunities IEE
    offers in the spirit of a learner-centred curriculum on the one hand and a social
    efficiency curriculum on the other. Indicators of social reconstruction and
    academic scholar ideologies were less apparent. Thus ideas about student
    autonomy, creativity and critical thinking appear to mix with ideas about training
    pupils and providing them with knowledge and skills that they need to
    function within their culture according to given standards presented by the
    authorities of their society.

Birtist í: 
  • Netla
ISSN: 
  • 1670-0244
Tengd vefslóð: 
  • http://netla.hi.is/greinar/2014/ryn/011.pdf
Samþykkt: 
  • 20.2.2015
URI: 
  • http://hdl.handle.net/1946/20626


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