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  • Titill er á ensku The effects of fatty acids on secretion of cytokines and chemokines by natural killer cells in vitro
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    Introduction: Resolution of inflammation was previously thought to be a passive process but is now considered to be an active biochemical process. As persistent inflammation is associated with several diseases, it is desirable to seek substances that might aid its resolution. Dietary fish oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, has been shown to enhance resolution of antigen-induced peritonitis in mice as well as to increase natural killer (NK) cell count early in the inflammation. Moreover, NK cells have been shown to be necessary for resolution of antigen-induced inflammation in mice as the resolution is hampered by their depletion. However, it is not known whether omega-3 fatty acids affect resolution through the increase in NK cell count and/or by affecting NK cell activity.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affect the activity of human NK cells, namely their secretion of cytokines and chemokines in vitro.
    Methods: Human NK cells, isolated from peripheral blood, were seeded in 96 well plates, cultured with or without 50 µM of arachidonic acid (AA), EPA or DHA and stimulated with cytokines to produce cytokines. The effects of the fatty acids were determined by measuring the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-13, IL-10, CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) and IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) in the culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
    Results: Culturing NK cells with the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA decreased their secretion of TNF-α and IL-13, compared with secretion of these cytokines by NK cells cultured without fatty acids. DHA additionally decreased secretion of GM-CSF. EPA and DHA did not affect secretion of IFN-γ, IL-10 or CCL3. Culturing NK cells with the omega-6 fatty acid AA did not affect their secretion of the cytokines tested for.
    Conclusion: The results indicate that the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA affect NK cell activity, namely by decreasing their secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and GM-CSF. This might be contributive to the effects that omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have on the resolution of inflammation, as these cytokines are known to enhance survival of neutrophils and therefore delaying resolution of inflammation.

  • 28.4.2016

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