Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/27120
An increased use of energy from renewable sources is viewed by the EU as one important part of the measures needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in complying with its international commitments. The current legal framework within the EU is governed by Directive 2009/28/EC. The directive set a target of at least a 20% share of energy from renewable sources in the EU’s gross final consumption of energy in 2020. The EU Member States shall ensure that they fulfil mandatory national overall targets set out in individual indicative trajectories consistent with the 20% target. Furthermore, there is a sector specific target set in transport for each Member State to ensure that the share of energy from renewable sources is at least 10% in 2020 in that sector.
In order to reach the renewable energy targets, the Member States may for example apply national support schemes. The directive mentions a non-exhaustive list of schemes, but does not go into any details about choice, design or implementation by the Member States which have been left discretion in these matters. The overall objective of this thesis is to examine the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources within the EU through the employment of support schemes, and how they have been implemented, functioned and succeeded. This is done by examining strengths and weaknesses, compatibility with internal market rules, deficits in the implementation and whether the support schemes fulfil their aim, and if ecological sustainability is achieved in this respect.
The Member States have implemented a wide range of support schemes including investment aid, feed-in tariffs, feed-in premiums, renewable energy obligations, tenders and tax exemptions/reductions. There have been reforms since they have been employed, and there are more reforms on the way sought by the EU to move towards more market-based mechanisms and cost-efficiency. The projected deployment of energy from renewable sources indicates that the EU as a whole will reach its 20% renewable energy target by 2020, but there are implementation deficits in some Member States. Furthermore, it is projected that the 10% target within transport will not be met. Different reasons for implementation deficits are given, and the Member State’s freedom in employment of support schemes is also constrained by the internal market rules. Still, with the progress made, ecological sustainability is at least not counteracted.
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