Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/31967
Fólk með þroskahömlun hefur í gegnum tíðina verið jaðarsettur hópur og haft fá tækifæri til atvinnuþátttöku á almennum vinnumarkaði. Árið 2013 stofnuðu fimm nemendur í starfstengdu diplómanámi fyrir fólk með þroskahömlun við Háskóla Íslands kaffihúsið GÆS í starfsnámi sínu. Rannsóknin sem hér er til umfjöllunar hafði það að markmiði að draga fram og greina þá orðræðu sem skapaðist í samfélaginu um kaffihúsið GÆS en það hlaut mikla umfjöllun á frétta- og vefmiðlum. Auk þess var leitast við að fá fram með hvaða hætti orðræðan um GÆS mótaði reynslu stofnfélaganna fimm og í því skyni tekin einstaklings- og rýnihópaviðtöl við þau. Gögnin voru greind með orðræðugreiningu og þemagreiningu. Niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar benda til þess að orðræðan um GÆS hafi einkennst af jákvæðni í garð hópsins sem stóð að kaffihúsinu og birtist meðal annars í því að fjölmiðlar og almenningur sýndi því mikinn áhuga og velvild. Í mótsögn við þetta litaðist orðræðan einnig af staðalmyndum um fólk með þroskahömlun sem byggjast meðal annars á því að líta það sem eilíf börn. Þessar hugmyndir leiddu til þess að fram komu ýmsar efsemdir um getu hópsins til að reka kaffihús og áttu þær stóran þátt í að rekstrinum var hætt. Jafnframt var stofnfélögunum fimm lýst sem ofurhetjum, snillingum og dugnaðarforkum á samfélagsmiðlum. Þó að orðræðan hafi á stundum virst viðhalda staðalmyndum um fólk með þroskahömlun má álykta að GÆS hafi átt þátt í að opna umræðuna um dugnað og hæfileika fólks með þroskahömlun og átt þátt í að breyta viðhorfum til hópsins.
Employment opportunities in the open labour market for people with intellectual disabilities have long been of a limited nature and often the only jobs on offer have been low-paid, with little opportunity for pay rise or promotion. It was, therefore, a watershed in labour market participation by people with intellectual disabilities when Café GÆS was opened in the premises of Tjarnarbíó in June 2013. For the first time in Iceland, people with intellectual disabilities established a company and took charge of all management as well as the frontof-the-house positions. These were five graduates from a vocational diploma program for people with intellectual disabilities at the University of Iceland that launched Café GÆS. One of the students came up with the idea to open a café run by disabled people. She wanted to see some drastic changes in job opportunities for disabled people and create a more accepting community in the labor market. The name GÆS means “goose” in Icelandic but is also acronym for “get, ætla, skal” (I can, I will, and I shall). The ideology of the project is derived from the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. According to the convention, disabled people have the right to participate in society on an equal basis with others and are entitled to live in a community without discrimination. They also have equal rights to be employed and earn a living and to work in a disability friendly environment, as well as starting their own business with relevant support and backing.
This thesis reports on findings from an ethnographic study carried out in 2012 - 2014. The research falls within the field of disability studies whose academic approach critiques medical definitions of disability, emphasising, instead, the interplay of impairments and environment and the importance of human rights for disabled people. The aim of the research was to identify and analyse the discourse of Café GÆS, which received significant coverage in news and online media. A particular emphasis was placed on the way people’s perspectives of intellectual disability were reflected in the discourse. In addition, a special effort was made to explore the impact of the discourse upon the five founding individuals; for this purpose, participant observations were carried out in the café and both individual and focus group interviews were conducted with them. The data was analysed by means of
discourse analysis and thematic analysis. The results of the research suggest that the discourse of GÆS in some ways reflects the general social discourse on people with intellectual disabilities, particularly with respect to historical views which mirror an devaluation, placing them in the roles of kids, sources of joy and amusement, superheroes and geniuses, even with reference to everyday activities. In contradiction to those perspectives there were also indications that the GÆS group has altered people’s views by challenging the above-mentioned stereotypes and reversing accepted notions relating to people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, one might conclude that GÆS has contributed to a more open discourse on the skills and competences of people with intellectual disabilities. The findings also indicate that the discourse on GÆS was characterised by positive attitudes towards the group which established the café. This, among other things, was manifested in considerable media interest and goodwill towards the café. But in contrast to the discourse outlined above, the discourse was also coloured by ableism and stereotypes of people with disabilities, attitudes which are for example demonstrated by regarding them as eternal children who cannot assume responsibilities. Ableism presumes that disability is a certain divergence from the norm and that people who are not disabled should always be socially classified over and above those with disabilities. There is some likelihood, therefore, that notions of ableism have led to the expression of doubts regarding their ability to run a café and this later became a weighty reason for the operation being wound up.