Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/33430
The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases have been rising in the world and account for 70% of all deaths globally. Unhealthy lifestyle and lack of physical activity are believed to increase the likelihood of cardiometabolic risk factors, individuals are therefore at higher risk of developing lifestyle related diseases. Studies have shown that lifestyle intervention programs with emphasis on increased physical activity and dietary changes can reduce weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a known and well investigated intervention program designed for individuals with impaired glucose tolerance has shown promising results. This study evaluated the effects of a lifestyle intervention program based on the Diabetes Prevention Program on weight, body composition, physical activity, quality of life, and dietary habits among participants.
This was a prospective, non-randomized 6-month intervention study conducted at Heilsuborg clinic in Iceland. A total of 81 participants entered the study of which 49 completed (mean age 48 years) the intervention program. The research period was from June 2018 to March 2019 and data was collected at the beginning and at the end of the program through online questionnaire and measurement at the clinic. The measurements were compared before and after intervention using paired T-test and McNemar´s Chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the effects of different lifestyle factors on weight loss.
Results show that mean weight loss among participants (N=49) after completing the program was 1.97 kg (p=0.001). Mean BMI decreased by 0.55 kg/m2 (p=0.030) and mean fat percentage decreased by 0.8% (p=0.007) but change in muscle mass was not significant. Self-reported quality of life improved by 23% (p<0.001) and those who underwent the cardiorespiratory fitness test improved their distance covered by 0.12 km (p=0.002). Participants reported an increase in exercise frequency after the intervention as exercise performed 1-4 times per week increased from 39% to 72% (p=0.005). Exercise intensity increased as well as vigorous physical activity increased from 8% to 40% after the intervention (p<0.001). Fruit consumption increased as those who reported to consume fruit 1-2 times per week or more increased from 46% to 65% after the intervention (p=0.020). Changes in consumption of vegetables, whole grain, and fish did not change significantly after the intervention. Those who consumed fruits 1-2 times per week at baseline were more likely to lose weight during the intervention compared to those who consumed fruits never or rarely (OR = 5.92; 95%CI: 1.29 – 34.62).
This study suggests that intervention program based on DPP for individuals with cardiometabolic risk factors can reduce weight, BMI, fat percentage and increase quality of life, fitness, exercise intensity, exercise frequency, and fruit consumption among participants. Moreover, higher fruit consumption at baseline was associated with weight loss.
|Lokaverkefni -skemman.pdf||1.56 MB||Lokaður til...30.06.2020||Heildartexti|