Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/34130
Due to demographic changes, of decrease in mortality and increase in natality, the nowadays older adults’ population, is growing, and estimated to grow even larger in the future. This community of older adults, faces problems which affect both the individual and society as a whole (World Health Organization., 2015). These problems, of socioeconomic nature, need solutions which public healthcare systems have not been able to solve in an efficient manner (Bouchard, Blair, & Haskell, 2012; Gudlaugsson, 2018). This literature review, explores “what positive effects does physical activity have on older adults and how can it enhance healthy ageing?”. To answer these questions, the process of ageing is firstly divided into physical, cognitive and psychological dimensions (Jeste, Depp, & Vahia, 2010; Pruchno, Wilson-Genderson, Rose, & Cartwright, 2010). Secondly, finding evidence on how physical activity can provide an effective help or prevention for the decline of each one of these dimensions. Amongst many positive results it is suggested that, physical activity augments blood circulation, which has positive effects on proper functioning of the body both physically and cognitively (Churchill et al., 2002; Gudlaugsson et al., 2013). It stimulates proper functioning of the brain, in having to adapt to the physically active enhanced-movements and spatial awareness (Hötting & Röder, 2013). Physical activity also helps the body release endorphins which contribute to more positive mood levels (Spirduso, Francis, & MacRae, 2005). Studies suggest that, group physical activity, despite being of low-intensity, increases positive emotional well-being and, lowers risk of depressive symptoms (Kritz-Silverstein, Barrett-Connor, & Corbeau, 2001). Overall it can be said that Physical activity has positive effects on all three dimensions, especially alongside or accompanied by cognitive and social stimulation. (Hötting & Röder, 2013; Podewils & Guallar, 2006).
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