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Thesis (Master's)

University of Iceland > Þverfræðilegt nám > Umhverfis- og auðlindafræði >

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/35761

Title: 
  • Sources of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Reykjavik on days exceeding health limit in 2015 and recommendations for Ghana’s air quality policy development
Degree: 
  • Master's
Abstract: 
  • Exceedances of particulate matter (PM10) health limit and finding ways to reduce the sources of ambient particulate matter in Reykjavik, Iceland and Accra, Ghana, has been of major concern over the years. Iceland has in the last years been able to implement the use of electric cars to reduce exhaust emissions, which enhances the Environmental Performance Index of Iceland towards the achievement of sustainable ‘‘pollution-free’’ environment. As a developing country, Ghana’s inadequate resources has resorted to the consistent use of low-cost air quality sensors and monitors to measure and identify possible sources of PM10 pollution.
    This research focuses on local and remote sources that contributed to the exceedance of PM10 concentrations over the 24-hour health limit in 2015 in Reykjavik and the impacts of weather on the concentrations. Three PM10 data sets (GRE, FHG and Model results) and meteorological data from GRE and IMO (back-up data) were used to assess the impacts of weather conditions on the PM10 concentrations.
    PM10 concentrations measured at GRE station were compared with predicted PM10 model results to ascertain how well the model works in predicting PM10. The model only accounts for traffic related pollution; including local resuspension events at GRE station only. Out of 328 monitoring days, nine (9) days were observed to have exceeded the PM10 24-hour health limit of 50 µg/m³ at GRE monitoring station and two (2) days were exceeded at FHG monitoring station. However, both GRE and FHG stations recorded 15th June 2015 as a day of exceedance thus, a total of 10 exceedance days in 2015. Measured PM10 levels for these 10 days ranged from 52.2 µg/m³ to 116.0 µg/m³ at GRE station. A series of daily PM10 data at GRE station were missing from 5th March through to 11th April 2015 due to equipment failure.
    Main sources of PM10 pollution for the 10 exceedance days were anthropogenic (traffic emissions and resuspension events: 6 days and construction activities: 1 day) with few occurrences of natural events (dust storm: 3 days). PM10 concentrations from traffic exhaust follow the Gaussian distribution plume model. Some weather parameters (precipitation and wind speed) affected PM10 levels on the exceedance days. Generally, model results underestimated PM10 concentrations from traffic emissions and resuspension events with wind speed ≥5 m/s. These results are useful in future environmental policy decisions for incorporating weather conditions as key environmental indicator of PM10 pollution.
    The 2015 annual average PM10 concentrations measured in Accra, Ghana and Reykjavik, Iceland were recorded as 172 µg/m³ and 18 µg/m³, respectively. Anthropogenic sources of PM10 are the main contributors of particulate matter pollution in Accra which includes traffic emissions, use of coal, open fire burning of waste and fish smoking (small scale business operation). Policy measures have been implemented by the government of Ghana to curb this situation and this research adds to the existing policy measures of air pollution in Ghana.

  • Abstract is in Icelandic

    Undanfarin ár hefur í jafn ólíkum löndum og Ísland og Ghana verið lögð áhersla á að finna leiðir til að minnka magn svifryks í umhverfinu og fækka fjölda þeirra skipta sem svifryk (PM10) fer yfir heilsuverndarmörk. Á Íslandi er nú lögð áhersla á rafbílavæðingu bílaflotans, sem bætir stöðu landsins á "Environmental Performance Index" og þannig má draga úr mengun í umhverfinu. Sem þróunarland, þarf Ghana að reiða sig á ódýrar lausnir við mælingar á svifryksmengun og þegar kemur að því að skoða uppsprettur mengunarinnar.
    Þessi rannsókn fjallar um uppsprettur svifryksmengunar sem ollu því að farið var yfir sólarhringsheilsuverndarmörk árið 2015 í höfuðborg Íslands, Reykjavík og áhrif veðurs á styrk svifryksmengunar. Þrennskonar gögn voru aðallega notuð, mælingar úr loftgæðamælistöðvunum við Grensásveg (GRE) og í Fjölskyldu-og húsdýragarðinum (FHG), auk niðurstaðna úr einföldu líkani af styrk svifryksmengunar. Einnig voru veðurgögn frá Veðustofu Íslands notuð.
    Mælingar á GRE voru bornar saman við líkanreikninga til að meta hversu vel einfalda líkanið virkaði. Líkanið metur einungis mengun vegna umferðar og að takmörkuðu leiti vegna staðbundinnar uppþyrlunar og einungis fyrir GRE stöðina að svo stöddu. Af 328 mælidögum voru 9 yfir heilsuverndarmörkum í GRE og 2 í FHG. Báðar stöðvarnar fóru yfir mörkin þann 15. júní, þannig að í raun eru dagarnir 10. Dægurgildi PM10 þessa daga var milli 52 µg/m³ og 116 µg/m³ á GRE. Gögn vantaði vegna tækjabilunar frá 5. mars til 11. apríl á GRE.
    Helstu uppsprettur svifryksmengunar þessa 10 daga sem voru yfir heilsuverndarmörkum voru af mannavöldum (umferð og uppþyrlun ryks, 6 dagar og byggingarframkvæmdir, 1 dagur), en einnig voru náttúrulegar uppsprettur, sandfok, 3 dagar. Svifryk vegna útblásturs fylgir Gaussian plume líkaninu. Úrkoma og vindhraði höfðu áhrif á styrk svifryks þá daga sem farið var yfir sólarhringsheilsuverndarmörkin.
    Almennt vanmat einfalda líkanið styrk svifryks vegna umferðar og uppþyrlunar ef vindhraðinn fór yfir 5 m/s. Þekking á ástæðum og veðuraðstæðum þegar svifryk mælist yfir heilsuverndarmörkum gagnast við ákvarðanir í umhverfismálum. Ársmeðaltal svifryks (PM10) í Ghana (í höfuðborginni Accra) var 172 µg/m³ og í Reykjavík (GRE) 18 µg/m³. Í Accra er helsta uppspretta svifryksmengunar (PM10) af mannavöldum þ.e.a.s. frá umferð, brennslu kola, opinni brennslu úrgangs og frá fyrirtækjum sem reykja fisk. Stefnumótun hefur verið þróuð til að minnka þessa mengun og í þessari ritgerð eru settar fram tillögur um það hvernig megi bæta loftgæðin í Ghana.

Accepted: 
  • Jun 2, 2020
URI: 
  • http://hdl.handle.net/1946/35761


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