Vinsamlegast notið þetta auðkenni þegar þið vitnið til verksins eða tengið í það: http://hdl.handle.net/1946/39330
Rewards and reinforcers have been used for decades to motivate students to participate in school tasks and activities. Although the purpose of rewards is to increase motivation, there are concerns amongst teachers and other professionals that rewards can have negative effects. One theory about the negative effects of rewards is referred to as the overjustification effect. This theory suggests that when rewards are delivered contingent on engagement in a preferred activity the intrinsic motivation for that activity decreases. The literature of the effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation has mixed results, some sources demonstrating the overjustification effects while other demonstrating positive effects on engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine what effects token reinforcers have on students’ choices of tasks and ratings they gave the tasks. Forty-five students in 1st grade participated and data for three participants were analyzed with a multiple baseline design. All participants received tokens contingent on engagement in a preferred task. Number of pages completed in each session increased for all three participants in token condition and the number went back to baseline levels in withdrawal condition for two of them. Number of pages for one participant was less than in baseline after withdrawal. Results from the whole class showed that most students worked less in withdrawal compared to baseline. The decrease in engagement could be explained by a decrease in intrinsic motivation, repeated exposure of the task, lack of preference or possible external reinforcers.
Keywords: Rewards, token reinforcer, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation overjustification effect.
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